[Thromboprohylaxis in orthopedic surgery and traumatology]

Abstract : Orthopaedic and trauma surgery are classified according 3 groups of venous thromboembolic risk. Elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR), hip fracture surgery or trauma patients are at high risk. Isolated lower extremity injury with fracture is at moderate risk whereas this risk is low without fracture as well as with knee arthroscopy. In THR and TKR, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux or melagatran-ximelagatran are strongly recommended. The routine use of other anticoagulants, in particular vitamin K antagonist are not recommended. In patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism as for example trauma patients, optimal use of intermittent pneumatic compression is an alternative option in case of contra-indication to anticoagulant prophylaxis. Graduated compression stockings enhance the efficacy of pharmacological methods. In schedule surgery, initiation of prophylaxis with LMWH may be started postoperatively. To reduce the haemorrhagic risk of anticoagulants, timing of first postoperative dose is essential and is proper to each drug. Duration of prophylaxis depends on the surgical and the individual patients' risk. Extended prophylaxis in THR for up to 42 days with LMWH and up to 35 days with fondaparinux in hip fracture surgery is recommended. However extended prophylaxis after 14 days in TKR has not demonstrated a higher efficacy and should only be considered for patients with additional risk factors. In patients with isolated lower extremity injury or undergoing knee arthroscopy, LMWH should not be routinely used according to a low or a moderate risk and/or the duration of prophylaxis required. But LMWH has to be considered for patients with additional risk factors. Prophylaxis in other orthopedic procedures has not been assessed and will be extrapolated from the above recommendations.
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Journal articles
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 8, 2009 - 3:37:35 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 16, 2018 - 11:23:17 AM

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  • HAL Id : ujm-00439803, version 1
  • PUBMED : 16145756

Citation

P. Mismetti, P. Zufferey, G. Pernod, Baylot, J. P. Estebe, et al.. [Thromboprohylaxis in orthopedic surgery and traumatology]. Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, Elsevier Masson, 2005, 24 (8), pp.871-89. ⟨ujm-00439803⟩

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