This thesis is aiming in utilizing the strongly correlated t-J Hamiltonian for better understanding the microscopic pictures of certain condensed matter scenario. One of the long existing issues in the Hubbard model and its extreme version, t-J model, lies in the fact that there is not an analytical way of solving them. Therefore, when dealing with these models, numerical approaches become very crucial. In this thesis, we will present one of the methods called renormalized mean-field theory (RMFT) and exploit it upon the t-J model. Thanks to the concept proposed by Gutzwiller, all we have to do is to try to include the correlation of electrons, which is mainly the most difficult part, with several renormalization factors. After obtaining the correct form of these factors, we can apply the routine mean-field theory in solving for the Hamiltonian, which is the principle methodology throughout this thesis. Next, the physical systems that we are interested in consist of two parts. The mystery of High-Tc superconductivity comes first. After 30 years of its discovery, people still cannot settle down a complete microscopic theory in describing this exotic phenomenon. However, with more and more experimental equipment with higher accuracy nowadays, lots of behavior of copperoxide superconductor (also known as cuprate) have been revealed. Those discoveries can definitely help us better understand its microscopic mechanism. Therefore, from the theoretical side, to compare the calculated data with experiments leads us to know whether our theory is on the right track or not. We have produced tons of data and made a decent comparison which will be shown in the main text. The second system we are curious about is the mechanism of electrons under magnetic field. The Hofstadter butterfly along with its Hamiltonian, the Harper-Hofstadter model has achieved great success in describing free electrons' movement with lattice present. Thus, it will be also interesting to ask the question: what will happen if the electrons are correlated. Our RMFT for t-J Hamiltonian, by adding an additional phase in the hopping term, happens to serve as a great preliminary model for answering this question. We will compare the results of ours with our collaborators, who solved this model by a different approach, the exact diagonalization(ED). Together with our calculations, we proposed several discoveries which might be realized by the cold atom experiments in the future.
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